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METHODOLOGY

Augusto Boal 

The Theater of the Oppressed (TdO) is a theatrical trend systematized by Brazilian playwright, actor, director and theater pedagogue Augusto Boal (1931-2009) in the 1960s. The theater of Augusto Boal addresses the communities of oppressed classes so it is the theater of the oppressed for the oppressed, in which structures are developed to fight against oppressive situations. Influencing of the epic theater of Bertolt Bercht, of the pedagogy of the oppressed of Paulo Freire.

 

The technique of the theater of the oppressed consists of different games or activities with multiple dynamics where participants are shown a way of managing or emerging from oppression where the physical and intellectual mechanization of their practitioners and the democratization of theater. The Theater of the Oppressed aims to use theater and dramatic techniques as an effective tool for understanding and seeking alternatives to social and interpersonal problems.

 

The book of "Games of actors and non-actors" analyzes the oppressions and relations of power and how with some exercises we can combat them in a certain way.

 

In the Theater of the Oppressed we find many lines of work such as the Journalistic Theater, the Legislative Theater, the Invisible Theater, the Rainbow of Desire, the Image Theater and the Theater Forum. The latter is the best known of all and all aim to transform the spectator into a protagonist of dramatic action and, "through this transformation, help the spectator to prepare real actions that lead to their own liberation." This is why it is called the Spectator.

 

From its pedagogical, social, cultural, political and therapeutic implications, it is proposed to transform the spectator - to be passive - in-spectator, protagonist of dramatic action - creative subject -, stimulating him to reflect on his past, to modify reality in the present and create its future. The spectator sees, attends; the spectator sees and acts or rather sees to act in the scene and in life (Boal, 1980).

Richard Pochinko  

Notable Euro-Canadian clown who trained several artists creating a new style between mask and clowns giving performance courses known as the "Pochinkio Technique".

 

In the "Pchinko Technique" he combined traditions of masks and clowns indigenous and European.

 

The Pochinko method consists of using seven masks, representing each of the six physical directions (North, South, East-West, Up and Down). The final mask is the clown. Variations include a three-mask technique (based on all three polarities) and a six-in-one mask technique.

 

Most clowning techniques (Eastern, European, etc.) focus on basic structure and formalism as the basis for beginning story creation.

 

The Pochinko Method begins by focusing on your personal natural emotions and impulses, and then structuring that creative license into a story.

 

Pochinko the clown was more than an artist: he was a kind of shaman, in contact with spiritual forces.

OTHERS

Jacques Rousseau and Antonin Artaud wanted actors to identify with the character in its totality, like Diderot, Brecha and Jouvet asked for the critical Split with the character, other like Stanislavski, said that there is no character. For psychology acting as it is, is not what it counts, what counts is the power of imagination and performance that can provoke to spectators. With performing one can leave tacit and understood, what is not said or spoken, what is not heard, what is not manifested. Every rehearsal of the actor is a movement that goes from the shadow and darkness, to the light and to experiences already lived, from things that already exist in the world and what one wants others to know about what wants to be expressed. As Usigli (1939) said “ Each man, for the only matter of living and doing it in society, just like to take a personal existence and collective one at a time, is material of theatre”. For the spectator it is important the existence of catharsis in a theatrical performance.

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